The resplendent flowers range from pink and mauve to a rich, vibrant red in the case of the most popular ‘Cambridge scarlet’ variety. Try placing a handful of fresh leaves in a cloth and positioning it under hot running bath water for a relaxing, lemony scented bath. Also known by its botanical name of Monarda, bee balm is very attractive to bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. Common Name. Other known names of this plant are Monarda, wild bergamot, horsemint, and Oswego tea. Another common name for Monarda didyma is Oswego Tea, which refers to the medicinal use of its leaves by an Amerindian tribe of the same name. Monarda petals can taste citrusy or have a peppery quality similar to oregano, depending on variety and where it is grown. Their strong flavor also goes well with meat and pork dishes. Bergamot gets its name from the similarity it has in aroma to the bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia). [6] Monarda is divided into two distinct subgenera, Monarda and Cheilyctis. This can be harmful to pregnant women. The name “bergamot” derives from the scent of the plant’s flower, leaves and roots that resemble Bergamot Orange, Citrus bergamia, the source of bergamot oil used to flavor Earl Grey tea. \"Oswego tea\" is another common name. M. didyma has bright carmine red flowers, M. fistulosa has pink, and M. citriodora and M. pectinata have pale purple. The fresh leaves can be added to jellies, punch, lemonade or wine to add extra taste. Oil of bergamot comes from the bergamot orange and is used to flavor Earl Grey tea. Harley, R. M., et al. Last week, with the help of the community, “Bee Balm” was named the county’s official pollinator plant. The flavor of Earl Gray tea is often attributed to Monarda, yet, the taste actually originates from the oil of Citrus aurantium bergamia (Bergamot Orange). Bergarnot is native to North America and was used to make an infusion by the Oswego Indians, hence the name ‘Oswego tea’. Legal Status. “We actually had a contest where over 500 people voted,” Ball said. But an awful lot of bee balm varieties are naturally-growing wildflowers in the United States. [19] The genera Blephilia and Pycnanthemum are close relatives of Monarda, but they might not be the closest. Bee balm flowers can be fresh-frozen and will keep for two months or more. What Are The Best Spices To Use In BBQ Rubs. Monarda species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including case-bearers of the genus Coleophora. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Poultices and compresses are used for skin infections or bruises. Cambridge Scarlet Bee Balm: Citrus-flavored leaves, with hints of orange and lemon. The slender, serrated, lanceolate leaves are oppositely arranged on the square stem, hairless or sparsely hairy, and about 7 to 14 centimeters long. [5] https://www.almanac.com/plant/bee-balm. Subordinate Taxa. In this case, the skin should not be exposed to sunlight after external use of the oil. The fresh or dried leaves are brewed into a refreshing, aromatic herbal tea. Choose a location in full sun or partial shade with moisture-retentive soil. The Winnebago used a bee balm tisane as a general stimulant. After the Boston Tea Party, it was a very popular beverage. Monarda is a genus of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae. The wild flowers are single, but some cultivated forms have double flowers. The species is quite variable, and several subspecies or varieties have been recognized within it. Also known as the “bergamot,” the bee balm flowers produce a citrus scent that’s similar to what you might expect when cutting up a bergamot orange. The thymol in bergamot can cause vomiting, nausea, gastric pain, convulsion, or rashes. Deeply breathing in the steam may also help relieve cold symptoms such as sore throat, fever, and congestion. It is an effective herbal cure for Headache. The Blackfoot recognized the strong antiseptic action of the plants, and used them in poultices for skin infections and minor wounds. Several species, including Monarda fistulosa and M. didyma, have a long history of use as medicinal plants by many Native Americans, such as the Blackfoot, Menominee, Ojibwa and Winnebago. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location. Bee Balm Varieties Monarda fistulosa and M. didym a are the varieties most commonly used as medicine by particular Native American tribes, including Blackfoot, Menominee, Ojibwe, and Winnebago. Common Name(s): Beebalm; Bee Balm; Bee-balm; Bergamont; Bergamot; Crimson Bee-balm; Horsemint; Oswego Tea; Scarlet Bee Balm Bee balm was traditionally used by Native Americans as a seasoning for wild game, particularly birds. A steam inhalation of the plant is useful for soothing inflamed mucus membranes. They can be used in salads, herb butters, or sprinkled over steamed vegetables. It is interesting that the seeds obtaine… Monarda's common names are Bee Balm, as it has great allure to the bees, and also Bergamot because the leaves are scented and when rubbed it is said they smell similar to the Bergamot oranges. fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs); The thymol present in the plant can cause nausea, convulsions, vomit, gastric pain or external rashes. Monarda, called by the common names of bee balm, horsemint and bergamot, is part of the mint family. The common name “bee balm” derives from the fact that bees love the nectar of the sweet smelling blossoms. It is also known by the common names bergamot, Oswego tea, and crimson beebalm. To create a mock-Earl Gray tea, steep 2 tablespoons of dried Monarda flowers with a good black tea for 5-7 minutes. Plants growing in partial shade spread horizontally and produce fewer flowers. [9], There are over 50 commercial cultivars whose hybrid colors range from dark red mahogany to bluish lilac to multiple shades of pink. Monarda blooms in the full sun. Of the species examined in one study, M. didyma contained the highest concentration of oil.[7]. [3] The genus is endemic to North America. It is a delightfully spicy edible flower and native medicinal herb, as well as an easy-to-grow, vigorous native nectar plant that will attract bees, butterflies, and hummingbirds to your pollinator garden. pp 167-275 In: Kubitzki, K. (editor) and J. W. Kadereit (volume editor). Latin Name Pronunciation: mo-nar'duh . The common name beebalm refers to the use of a resin derived from the plant that may be used for healing and soothing in particularly of bee stings. js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; Boiling can evaporate the oils which produce the flavor. These are generally not as robust as wild species. It grows from two to four feet tall depending on the variety, and will fit well into your herb garden or can be used for a perennial border planting. It is a somewhat coarse, clump-forming, mint family member that features tubular, two-lipped, bright scarlet-red flowers crowded into dense, globular, terminal flowerheads (to 3-4 across) somewhat resembling unkempt mo… They are hermaphroditic, with male and female structures in each flower. Similar plants with lavender flowers are also popular; classified as Monarda fistulosa, they go by the common name \"wild bergamot.\" My mother is the genius behind Buzzed Bee Balm and all of our products we have. This often forgotten herb is easy to find fresh, and can be dried for an aromatic and useful bouquet. TaxonMaps", "Growing Bee Balm: How to Plant, Grow, and Care for Bee Balm", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Monarda&oldid=985937729, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 28 October 2020, at 20:59. The Bee Balm is grown in North America, which is a thriving woodland area. They grow erect to heights of 20–90 cm (8–35 in). Add the dried leaves to black tea to make your own Earl Grey. While the flowers usually appear individually, some cultivars are created to have two of them on one stem. Monarda lutea, or horsemint, is especially known for having high levels of thymol. It is best to use the flowers for tea, the leaves have a hotter, oregano-like flavor. They are also one of the top rabbit-resistant plants for your garden. We are easy to reach and eager to please: (function(d, s, id) { One of the most important things to know about bee balm is that they are vigorous plants. bee balm, name for several herbs, especially Melissa officinalis and Monarda didyma, both typical perennials of the family Labiatae (mint [1] family) named for … Bergamot bears a dozen or more tubularshaped flowers clustered in pom-pom shaped whorls atop strong, square stems with pairs of oval, hairy leaves 3 1/4 in. Earl Grey tea is flavored with the rind of citrus bergamia, the bergamot orange. Monarda species include annual and perennial herbaceous plants. Bergamot can be used in several ways outside of tea. The bee balm flower has an open, daisy-like shape, with tubular petals in shades of red, pink, purple and white. This plant has no children. [2][4] Common names include bee balm, horsemint, oswego tea, the latter inspired by the fragrance of the leaves, which is reminiscent of bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia). The scent is similar to the bergamot orange that flavors Earl Grey tea. Pericarp structure and phylogeny of tribe Mentheae (Lamiaceae). Native Americans and later settlers also used it to alleviate stomach and bronchial ailments. Common names include bee balm, horsemint, oswego tea, the latter inspired by the fragrance of the leaves, which is reminiscent of bergamot orange (Citrus bergamia). Bee balm is a member of the mint family but has a citrus quality to it. Scientific Name: Cambridge Scarlet Bee Balm: Monarda didyma Lavender Bee Balm: Monarda fistula Fam: Labiatae (mint family) Image by Mabel Amber from Pixabay [8] An infusion of crushed, boiled Monarda has been used to treat headache and fever. Bee balm, also known by its botanical name, “Monarda,” is a tall, perennial that’s native to Northern America. It is also good for soothing the digestive tract. Historical. Growing to be about 20-29 cm in height, these herbaceous plants produce flowers annually or perennially depending on species. A tisane made from the plant was also used to treat mouth and throat infections caused by dental caries and gingivitis. Monarda citriodora has leaves that are lemon-scented. The plants are well known to attract butterflies and bees. The leaves are slender, serrated, and arrange parallel to each other, usually with very few hairs. Here’s how to plant and grow bee balm in your garden! DO NOT BOIL THE FLOWERS. For bareroot varieties, plant with the old stems pointing up. Bee Balm, Bergamot, American Melissa, Fragrant Balm, Gold Melissa, Horse Mint, Indian Nettle, Indian Plume, Oswego Tea, Cambridge Scarlet Bee Balm: Monarda didyma Lavender Bee Balm: Monarda fistula Fam: Labiatae (mint family). They are prone to developing powdery mildew in high humidity, especially if planted in a place without good air circulation. Interspecific relationships in the genus, "Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families", "2013 BONAP North American Plant Atlas. Monarda L. – beebalm. Monarda fistulosa, the wild bergamot or bee balm, is a wildflower in the mint family (Lamiaceae) widespread and abundant as a native plant in much of North America. Genus. Family – Lamiaceae. Other Names. The flavor of Monarda combines well with tropical fruits like pineapple, mango and orange. There are many different varieties of the Monarda species, and about 50 commercial cultivars commonly available. wild bergamot. Externally, bee balm is a wonderful aromatherapy herb. Bee balm has its origin in North America. Species. wild bergamot. Plant taxonomy classifies red bee balm plants (alternatively termed \"scarlet\") as Monarda didyma. For faster growth, fertilize in the spring with a good all purpose (10-10-10) liquid plant food. didyma and M. fistulosa are two of the most popular species among the seventeen species and over fifty cultivars of the plant.One or more of them are found nearly everywhere in North America (USDA). Dig up the root clump in the early spring, discard the inner, older portion, and re-plant the new divisions 12 to 15 inches apart. Bee balm spreads by rhizomes, or underground stems, which makes them easy to split and divide. Often called bergamot because its citrusy flavor is similar to the bergamot orange, bee balm flowers make a great addition to oil when frying white fish or scallops. Use whole flowers to make attractive floating garnishes in punch bowls of sangria, or use them to decorate the rim of a serving platter. In addition to bee balm, Monarda, … Common names are from state and federal lists. Bergaptene is also found in bergamot, and may cause phototoxicity. Fresh flowers are edible and can be used in salads or as garnishes. Bee balm is a natural source of the antiseptic compound thymol, the primary active ingredient in some modern commercial mouthwash formulas. Inflorescences occur at the top of the stem or emerge from the axils. As the name suggests, their presence will summon bees to your garden, along with other nectar seekers, such as butterflies and hummingbirds. [8], Monarda plants thrive in sun and moist but well-drained soil. Hello, my name is Jacob Bowman. The name "bee balm" may refer to any species in the genus Monarda. Bee balm plants are perennial, coming back year after year to add cheerful color to your garden. Bee balm is a great addition to a pollinator garden. (2 cm) wide. The genus was named for the Spanish botanist Nicolás Monardes, who wrote a book in 1574 describing plants of the New World. Like other members of the mint family, Bee Balm can become invasive, but you can keep your clump contained by dividing the roots in either spring or fall. A perennial favorite native to North America, bee balm (also called wild bergamot) is beloved in flower beds for its beautiful blooms of red, pink, purple or white—not to mention the fragrant foliage. Bee Balm is also known by other names such as Horsemint, Wild Bergamot, and Oswego tea. U.S. Weed Information; Monarda fistulosa . Certainly, the strong, citrusy fragrance emanating from bee balm bears more than a passing resemblance to a steaming cup of Earl Grey, but bergamot oil comes from a citrus fruit, not this cottage garden favorite. [5][6], The crushed leaves of all species exude a spicy, fragrant essential oil. 1. Monarda didyma, known by a number of different common names including bee balm, Oswego tea and bergamot, is native to eastern North America where it typically occurs in bottomlands, thickets, moist woods and along streambanks from Maine to Minnesota south to Missouri and Georgia. Monarda didyma L. – scarlet beebalm. Others, as illustrated above right M. 'Squaw' are more long lasting. The plant has antibacterial properties, which helps to treat infections. [CDATA[ google_ad_client = "ca-pub-0348064665172985"; /* Epicentre 300x250 anywhere */ google_ad_slot = "5495859598"; google_ad_width = 300; google_ad_height = 250; // ]]> Bergamot is a member of the mint family. Be sure to allow for good air circulation around the plants to prevent attacks from powdery mildew! The flowers are tubular and bilaterally symmetric, with a narrow upper lip and a wider lower lip. This plant, with showy summer-blooming pink to lavender flowers, is often used as a honey plant, medicinal plant, and garden ornamental. Botanical Name – Monarda. Bee Balm is used to counter Feverishness. Botanical Name and Family. Use fresh or dried leaves in tomato dishes, and as a substitute for sage in stuffing for poultry and meats, especially pork and veal. The color range can be anywhere between warm reds and cool blues. Some bees pollinate them, but primarily it is butterflies and humming birds, or humming bird moths. Monarda species and their many hybrid varieties come in a stunning range of colors. }(document, "script", "aweber-wjs-d2559b6gz")); Copyright © The Epicentre - Website designed by, How to Start Your First Fresh Herb Garden, Want to Go Organic? Some hybrids have been developed to produce high levels of essential oil for use as flavoring or medicine. The herb contains thymol, which is responsible for many of the plants healing qualities. Bergamot is another common name for bee balm, but is misleading. Monarda, commonly called bee balm or bergamot, is also known by the names oswego tea and horsemint. Use fresh whole or chopped leaves in recipes for duck, meat, sausages, and curries. Native Americans made use of monarda's essential healing oils, and spotted bee balm … Bee Balm Pink Lace | Monarda | Bee Balm Bee Balm, as the name suggests, is bee friendly and will attract butterflies and hummingbirds to your garden. A single cup can be made by pouring one cup of boiling water over 2 teaspoons of dried flowers in a tea infuser or strainer. Geographical area where Bee Balm grows. The plants are widespread across North America and can be found in moist meadows, hillsides, and forest clearings up to 5,000 feet (1,500 m) in elevation. In dry conditions, Bee Balm is susceptible to powdery mildew. These beautiful native perennials can grow several feet tall, and serve valuable nectar to butterflies and hummingbirds. Molecular phylogenetic studies of this tribe have been poorly sampled, and relationships within it remain unclear. Bergamot was identified in the sixteenth century by the Spanish medical botanist Nicolas de Monardes, whose name is used to identify this genus of plants. Other Names: Eastern Bee balm, Bergamot, Wild Oswego Tea, Horse mint, Monarda Oswego tea was embraced as a beverage by the early American settlers, who after the Boston tea party in 1773, boycotted Indian tea which was traded by the English. Bee balm was also used as a carminative herb by Native Americans to prevent excessive flatulence. Hybrids occur in the wild, and they are common in cultivation. The name “bee balm” is one of the many common names of the Monarda genus. Bee Balm is another name for Horsemint. 2004. The plant can be used as a cooking herb. This new, shorter, more compact version forms rapidly spreading, medium-sized clumps of mint-scented foliage. Monarda are used in beds and borders to attract hummingbirds, pollinating insects, and insects that control garden pests. Also complements many fruits, including strawberries, oranges, apples, melons, and tangerines. Seed collected from hybrids does not yield plants identical to the parent. The bee balm plant is a North American native, thriving in woodland areas. Bee balm is a ‘catch all’ term that encompasses several species of flowering herbs from the Monarda genus. 2. In small garden settings, some varieties of bee balm can out-compete less aggressive neighbors, so be careful where you plant them. The whole plant is valuable for medicinal purposes. The flowers have a tubular shape and are symmetrical, with a wider lower lip. You can stimulate a second flowering in the same year by cutting the flowers right after they bloom. Coleophora monardae feeds only on Monarda plants, and C. heinrichella and C. monardella only feed on the species M. fistulosa. In the fall, prune your Monarda plants to within an inch of the ground. Enliven the taste and look of salads by adding a sprinkling of bergamot flowers. The Oswego Indians used it to make a delicious tea and taught settlers coming to America to make it. The Epicentre is about herbs and spices, the spice trade, cooking with spices, recipes and health benefits of spice. They are typically crowded head-like clusters of flowers with leafy bracts. Monarda is in the tribe Mentheae of the subfamily Nepetoideae in the mint family. (8 cm) long and 3/4 in. Dangers: Bergamot stimulates contractions in the uterus. The plants are unrelated but have similar flavors. Let’s look at a short list of some of the types and the differences between them.Monarda bradburiana, ‘Eastern beebalm’This perennial variety has a lower cushion of rich green foliage, with lightly-toothed edges along oval leaves. if (d.getElementById(id)) return; Bee balms, which are native to eastern North America (1), are a member of the Mint (Lamiaceae) family. Bee balm is the common name of both Monarda didyma, which has red flowers, or Monarda fistulosa, which can have lavender, pink, or white flowers.M. The leaves of Bee Balm are usually a darker shade of green and they are slightly broader than those of Wild Bergamot. Flower color: purple. Here’s How to Change Your Diet Step-by-Step, Reasons Behind The Soaring Popularity Of CBD Gummies, Do Men Like Flowers Too? Bee balm lends a bright, wild look to mixed bouquets. The genus is endemic to North America. Makes a great gift. Bee Balm herb is noted for its fragrance, and is a source of oil of thyme. Use flowers and leaves in recipes for chicken, turkey, and pork dishes. Bee Balm has also shown some merit as an antiseptic and antibacterial, and a clean cloth can be soaked in a tea and used as a compress, or an ointment can be made to help relieve pain and speed healing for minor wounds, insect stings, and for relief of eczema, psoriasis, cold sores, and clearing up acne. Bee Balm, Bergamot, American Melissa, Fragrant Balm, Gold Melissa, Horse Mint, Indian Nettle, Indian Plume, Oswego Tea. Hearty, dark red stems of … M. didyma has red-colored flowers, and contains the highest amounts of essential oils. var js, fjs = d.getElementsByTagName(s)[0]; Bee balm jelly is essentially just bee balm petal tea with sugar and pectin. Combines well with mint. "Labiatae". It also has antiseptic qualities that fight bacteria, parasites and fungi. It’s delightful with cream cheese or simply spread on toast. There are two stamens. Flower color varies, with wild species bearing red, pink, and light purple flowers. Some varieties can be short-lived perennials, almost annuals really, such as 'Bergamo'. [20] These are easily distinguished by several characters.[3]. [10], The following cultivars have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit:[11], The UK National Collection of Monardas is held at Glyn Bach Gardens at Pont Hywel, Efailwen, near Llandissilio in Pembrokeshire.[18]. Although somewhat bitter due to the thymol content in the leaves and buds, the plant tastes like a mix of spearmint and peppermint with oregano. At the same time her doctor was telling her to seek “alternative” solutions. The genus was named for the Spanish botanist Nicolás Monardes, who wrote a book in 1574 describing plants of the New World. Ryding, P. O. Here Are Some Better Gift Ideas For Him. The leaves and flowers of monarda are used for colds, reducing fever, soothing sore throats, headaches, insomnia and menstrual pain. It’s lovely in the jar and carries a light honey flavor with minty undertones. For potted varieties, plant the crown at soil level. \"Cambridge Scarlet\" is a popular cultivar with red flowers. We have an online shop for hard-to-find and best-quality spices and blends. Oswego Tea can be made as a soothing drink to calm nerves and as a relaxing sleep aid, and is often combined with other well-known relaxation herbs such as Valerian and Chamomile for this purpose. Early pilgrims, such as the east coast Shakers and native American Indians, such as the Oneida Indians used the tea to remedy colds and sore throats, and it’s often used in the same way today. R… Bee Balm Jelly. Bee balm leaves have a very strong flavor and should be dried before use. //